Learn how to calculate your required minimum distribution for your IRA, 401k, 403b or other qualified retirement plan.
When you move from one job to another, often there is an old 401k plan at the former employer. You have several choices for what you can do with the old 401k plan, and some options are better than others. Some of the options are dependent upon the balance in your old 401k account, as well. Cash it out. This is typically the worst option. You took advantage of tax-deferral (and company matching) when you contributed the funds to the account. If you simply cash out the old 401k, you’ll have to pay tax on the funds, and if you were under age 55 when you left the employer you will also likely be hit with a 10% penalty for the early withdrawal. In addition to the tax and penalty, when you take a withdrawal from your 401k plan there is an automatic 20% withholding requirement. You will have credit […]
There are several ways to get at your IRA funds before age 59½ without having to pay the 10% penalty. In this post we’ll cover the Medical Expenses which allow for a penalty-free distribution. There are three different Medical reasons that can be used to qualify for an early withdrawal: high unreimbursed medical expenses, paying the cost of medical insurance, and disability. Disability and high unreimbursed medical expenses are also applicable reasons allowing for early withdrawal of 401k funds without penalty. We’ll cover each of these topics separately below. High Unreimbursed Medical Expenses If you are faced with high medical expenses for yourself, your spouse, or a qualified dependent, you may be eligible to withdraw some funds from your IRA or 401k penalty-free to pay for those expenses. The amount that you can withdraw is limited to the actual amount of the medical expenses you paid during the calendar year, minus 10% […]
When you have a 401k and you need some money from the account, you have a couple of options. Depending upon your 401k plan’s options, you may be able to take a 401k loan. With some plans you also have the option to take an early, in-service withdrawal from the plan. These two options have very different outcomes for you, in terms of taxes and possible penalties. Let’s explore the differences. 401k Loan If your plan allows for a 401k loan, this can be a good option to get access to the money, for virtually any purpose. Being a loan, there is no tax impact when you take out a 401k loan. Plus you can use the money for any purpose that you need, at any age. As a loan, it must be paid back over the a five-year period (at most). You’ll pay interest on the loan, but since […]
If you take a 401k withdrawal and the money in the 401k was deducted from your taxable income, you’ll be taxed on the funds you withdraw. Depending on the circumstances, you may also be subject to a penalty. There’s a lot of confusion about how the taxation works – and the taxation and penalties can be different depending upon the circumstances. Taxation of the 401k Withdrawal When you take a distribution of pre-tax money from a 401k plan, the amount of the 401k withdrawal that is pre-tax will be included in your income and will be taxed at your marginal income tax rate in that year. Unless you meet one of the exceptions noted in the article 16 Ways to Withdraw Money From Your 401k Without Penalty, your 401k withdrawal will also be subject to a 10% early withdrawal penalty. For example – if you have a 401k plan at […]
I occasionally get this question – especially around the time of tax refunds. When someone comes up with an extra $1,000, they often want to know how to best use that money wisely to help out their overall financial condition. Of course this question has different answers for different situations. I’ll run through several different sets of conditions that a person might find him or herself in, and some suggestions for how you might use an extra $1,000 to best improve your financial standing. (It’s important to note that you don’t have to have an extra $1,000 lying around to use this advice – you could have an extra ten or twenty or fifty bucks a week and put it to work with the same principles.) The point is to find money that isn’t being spent on something critical, and put it to work for you! Even small steps amount to wonders. […]
You have this 401k account that you’ve been contributing to over the years, and now you’ve found yourself in need of a bit of extra cash. Maybe you need to cover the cost of a new furnace, or possibly you have some extra medical bills that need attention, and you don’t have the extra cash to cover. Whatever the reason, a loan from your 401k might be just the ticket. A 401k (or other employer-based plan like a 403b, 457, etc.) is unique from an IRA in that you are allowed to borrow against the account. An IRA can never be borrowed against, any withdrawals are immediately taxable. Before we go into the specifics of taking a loan from your 401k, since I’m a financial planner I have to put a word of warning out: Borrowing from your 401k should be considered a “last resort” option, when you’ve exhausted all […]
Today, we have so many choices for our retirement savings that it can be difficult to choose which sort of account to contribute to. If you are fortunate enough (as many are) to have more than one type of retirement plan available to you, in what order should you contribute to the accounts? Right now, at the beginning of a new year, is an excellent time to start with retirement savings. Qualified Retirement Plans First of all, many folks who are employed by a company have some sort of tax-deferred, qualified, retirement savings account available. These accounts go by many names – 401(k), 403(b), 457, and deferred compensation. These accounts are collectively referred to as qualified retirement plans, or QRPs. QRPs do not include IRAs – this is another type if retirement savings account with some different rules. A QRP account is a good place to start when contributing to […]
Listen to this post: Most of you have one or more types of defined contribution retirement plans, such as a 401(k), 403(b), 457, IRA, SEP-IRA, or any of a number of other plans. Each type of plan has certain characteristics that are a little different from other plans, but most of them have the common characteristic of deductibility from current income and deferred taxation on growth. 1. Each dollar you defer is worth more than a dollar. It’s true. As you defer money into your retirement account, each dollar that you defer could be worth as much as $1.66. How, you might ask? Since you are not taxed on the dollar that has been deferred into the retirement account, your “take home” pay only reduces by the amount that is left over after taxation. For example, if you’re in the 25% bracket, generally your income will only reduce by 75¢ […]
Recently the IRS issued a Notice, 2014-54, which details some information regarding the allocation of pre-tax funds from a qualified plan (such as a 401(k) plan) into a Roth IRA. This is a clarification of a question that has been on the minds of folks in the financial services industry for some time, and it’s a good result. Now the question becomes: does this help to clarify NUA basis allocation strategies? If you’d like additional detail on Notice 2014-54, you can find the actual text of the Notice by clicking this link. What I find interesting about this Notice is that this is the first time that the IRS has used this interpretation of the rules referenced specifically in IRC Section 402(c)(2), which is the code section I’ve referenced before regarding allocation of basis for Net Unrealized Appreciation (NUA) treatment for employer stock. (See more information in this most recent […]
When hard times befall you, you may wonder if there is a way withdraw money from your 401k plan. In some cases you can get to the funds for a hardship withdrawal, but if you’re under age 59½ you will likely owe the 10% early withdrawal penalty. The term 401k is used throughout this article, but these options apply to all qualified plans, including 403b, 457, etc.. These rules are not for IRA withdrawals (although some are similar) – see the article at this link for 19 Ways to Withdraw IRA Funds Without Penalty. Generally it’s difficult to withdraw money from your 401k, that’s part of the value of a 401k plan – a sort of forced discipline that requires you to leave your savings alone until retirement or face some significant penalties. Many 401k plans have options available to get your hands on the money, but most have substantial […]
We all know that we should save money for a rainy day, a message we’ve received since we were little ones, but this article covers some more reasons why you should participate in a 401(k) plan, if you have one available. It’s on you Back in the olden days when the earth was still cooling, employees could count on (or at least thought they could count on) a pension benefit from their employer upon retirement. This pension plan provided a safety net that allowed the employee to go into retirement with relatively little concern about whether there would be enough money to live on.
As of the beginning of 2013, a new provision became available for participants in 401(k), 403(b) and 457 deferred compensation retirement plans: the Roth 401(k) In-Plan Conversion. This provision allows current employees participating in one of these Qualified Retirement Plans to convert funds from the traditional 401(k) (or other) account into the Designated Roth Account (DRAC) that is part of the plan. This is new and different because previously the only way to convert funds from the 401(k) plan to a Roth-like account was to have left employment by the sponsoring employer.
If your employer has a 401(k) plan available for you to participate in, you may also have a Roth 401(k) option available as a part of the plan. (We’re referring to 401(k) plans by name here, but unless noted the rules we’re discussing also apply to other Qualified Retirement Plans (QRPs) such as 403(b) or 457 plans.) Roth 401(k) plans are not required when a 401(k) plan is offered, but many employers offer this option these days. The Roth 401(k) option, also known as a Designated Roth Account or DRAC, first became available with the passage of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA) of 2001, with the first accounts available effective January 1, 2006. The Roth 401(k) was designed to provide similar features present in a Roth IRA to the employer-provided 401(k)-type plans. Similar to traditional 401(k) Certain features of the Roth 401(k) are similar to the traditional […]
When you participate in your employer-sponsored 401(k) plan (or any type of Qualified Retirement Plan, including 403(b), 457, etc.), the first step is to determine how much money you will defer into the plan. We discussed this previously in an article about contributions to your 401(k) plan. Once you’ve determined the amount you’ll contribute, the next step is to allocate your funds within the account. This starts with an overall plan for your investment allocation – which you should take time to plan in advance. For the purposes of our illustration here, we’ll say that you have a plan to split your account 75% to stocks and 25% to bonds. Within the stock allocation, you want to split this as 1/3 each to large cap stock, small cap stock, and international stock. In the bond category you want to split this to 80% domestic bonds and 20% international bonds. Now […]
Continuing our series of articles on the mechanics of 401(k) plans, today we’ll talk about loans from the account. As with all of these articles, we’ll refer generically to the plans as 401(k) plans, although they could be just about any Qualified Retirement Plans (QRPs), including 403(b), 457, and other plans. Unlike IRAs, 401(k) plans allow for the employee-participant to take a loan from the plan. There are restrictions on these loans, but they can be useful if you need funds for a short-term period and have no other sources. 401(k) Loans If you have a balance in your 401(k) account, often your plan administrator will have a provision allowing you to take a loan of some of the funds in the account. (Not all plans allow loans – this is an optional provision, not a requirement.) Sometimes the plan administrator will place restrictions on the use of the loan […]
For the next in our series of articles regarding the mechanics of 401(k) plans, we’ll review distributions from the plan. As with our other articles in this series, we’re referring to all sorts of qualified retirement plans (QRPs) – including 401(k), 403(b), 457, and others – generically as 401(k) plans throughout. There are several types of distributions from 401(k) plans to consider. Distributions before retirement age and after retirement age are the two primary categories which we’ll review below. Another type of distribution is a loan – which will be covered in a subsequent article. But first, we need to define retirement age. Generally speaking, retirement age for your 401(k) plan is 59½, just the same as with an IRA. However, if you leave employment at or after age 55, the operative age is 55. If you have left employment before age 55, retirement age is 59½. This means that […]
In this article in our series on the mechanics of 401(k) plans, we’ll be covering the concept of vesting. As with the other articles in the series, we’ll refer specifically to 401(k) plans throughout, but most of the provisions apply to all types of Qualified Retirement Plans (QRPs), which go by many names: 401(k), 403(b), 457, etc.. Vesting refers to the process by which the employer-contributed amounts in the 401(k) plan become the unencumbered property of the employee-participant in the plan. Vesting is based upon the tenure of the participant as an employee of the employer-sponsor of the plan. Generally, when an employee first begins employment there is a period of time when the employer wishes to protect itself from the circumstance of the new employee’s leaving employment within a relatively short period of time. Vesting is one way that the employer can protect itself from handing over employer-matching funds […]
Oftentimes we are faced with difficult situations in life – where we need extra money to pay for a major car repair, a new roof for the house, or just day-to-day living expenses – and our emergency funds are all tapped out. Now your options become poor: should I go to a payday loan place, put more on my credit card? My mortgage is upside-down so there’s no home equity loan in my future, and I can’t ask my folks for a loan, I’ve asked them for too much. Hey, what about my retirement plan? I’ve got some money socked away in an IRA that’s just sitting there, why don’t I take that money? It’s really tough to be in a situation like this, but you need to understand the impacts that you’ll face if you decide to go the route of the IRA withdrawal, especially if you’re under age […]
There are lots of articles around that speak to what you can and cannot do with your IRA before you reach age 59½, and more that address what you must or must not do with your IRA after you’ve reached age 70½. But what can you do in the interim period? Surprisingly, you have all the control you may wish for. After you’ve reached age 59½, you are free to take withdrawals from your traditional IRA with no penalties. You will have to pay tax on any withdrawal from the IRA, but otherwise there’s no downside to taking money out of the account. For a Roth IRA, of course there’s no tax on the withdrawal. You’re free to take as much as you like (or as little) at any time. Of course, these withdrawals from either type of account, Roth or traditional, will forever remove the funds from the tax-protected […]