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Early Distribution

The Earliest Age You Can Withdraw Retirement Money Without Penalty

Do you know what is the earliest age you can be and still be eligible to withdraw money from a deferred retirement account without penalty?

Public Safety Employee Retirement Plan Withdrawal at Age 50

There is a special exception to the retirement plan early withdrawal rules for a public safety employee, who may start withdrawals as early as age 50.

Higher Education Expenses Paid From an IRA

An IRA can be used to pay for higher education expenses. This avoids the penalty for early withdrawal that occurs if you’re under age 59 1/2.

Tax Impacts of Early Withdrawals from Your IRA

When you make early withdrawals from an IRA or other retirement plan there are tax ramifications, depending on the circumstances of your withdrawal.

Penalties for Changing SOSEPP

What are the penalties for changing your SOSEPP? If you don’t know, that’s another name for a 72t distribution. IRS has some severe penalties if you change your payment plan.

SOSEPP & How a QDRO Affects It

In addition to the 72(t) exception available for folks with a QDRO (see this post), there is also the question of how a QDRO impacts an established Series of Substantially Equal Periodic Payments (SOSEPP) – which, as we know, once established can only be changed one time. Although not definitive, below are summaries of three Private Letter Rulings (PLRs) that seem to suggest first of all that making the distribution is not subject to the 10% penalty when a QDRO or divorce decree is involved, pursuant to the regulation in Code section 72(t)(4)(A)(ii). Private Letter Rulings for SOSEPP 1) The transfer to a taxpayer’s spouse pursuant to a divorce decree of 50% of each of three separate IRAs owned by the taxpayer from which the taxpayer had already begun receiving “substantially equal periodic payments” did not result in a modification where the taxpayer’s spouse was two years younger and would commence […]

401(k) & Qualified Domestic Relations Orders (QDRO)

An exception to the 10% penalty on distributions from a qualified plan (but not an IRA, an IRA is split via a transfer incident to a divorce, which is not an automatic exception) Qualified Domestic Relations Order, or QDRO (cue-DRO).  A QDRO is often put into place as part of a divorce settlement, especially when one spouse has a qualified retirement plan that is a significant asset. What happens in the case of a QDRO is that the court determines what amount (usually a percentage, although it could be a specific dollar amount) of the qualified retirement plan’s balance is to be presented to the non-owning spouse.  Once that amount is determined and finalized by the court, a QDRO is drafted and provided to the non-owning spouse. This document allows the non-owning spouse to direct the retirement plan custodian to distribute the funds in the amount specified. In the case of a QDRO, the owning spouse will […]

Withdrawals from an IRA – death, disability, and 59 1/2

Three of the most common ways that you can withdraw funds from your IRA without penalty are: 1) reaching age 59½; 2) death; and 3) disability. Below is a brief review of each of these conditions for penalty-free withdrawal: Reaching Age 59½ When you reach age 59½, you can withdraw any amount from your IRA without penalty, for any reason. The only thing you have to remember is that you must pay ordinary income tax on the amount that you withdraw. This means that, once you have reached the date that is 6 months past your 59th birthday, you are free to make withdrawals from your IRA without penalty. You are not required to take distributions at this age (that happens at age 70½). Death Upon your death at any age, the beneficiaries of your account or your estate if you have not named a beneficiary, can take distributions from your IRA in […]

Early Withdrawal of an IRA – 72t Exceptions

If you have done much studying about IRAs and 401k plans, you probably know that there are several exceptions in the Internal Revenue Code that allow an early withdrawal from your IRA or 401k plan without the 10% penalty being imposed. The section of the IRC that deals with quite a few of these exceptions is called Section 72t (referred to as 72t for short), and there are several subsections in this piece of the Code. Each subsection, listed below, has specific circumstances that must be met in order to provide exception to the 10% penalty. Clicking on the link for each subsection will provide you with additional details about that exception. §72(t)(2)(A)(i) – age 59½ – this is the standard age allowing for penalty-free withdrawals from your IRA or 401k. In some cases there is an exception allowing for penalty-free withdrawals from a 401k at or after age 55; and […]

Early Withdrawal of an IRA or 401k – Medical Expenses

There are several ways to get at your IRA funds before age 59½ without having to pay the 10% penalty. In this post we’ll cover the Medical Expenses which allow for a penalty-free distribution. There are three different Medical reasons that can be used to qualify for an early withdrawal: high unreimbursed medical expenses, paying the cost of medical insurance, and disability. Disability and high unreimbursed medical expenses are also applicable reasons allowing for early withdrawal of 401k funds without penalty. We’ll cover each of these topics separately below. High Unreimbursed Medical Expenses If you are faced with high medical expenses for yourself, your spouse, or a qualified dependent, you may be eligible to withdraw some funds from your IRA or 401k penalty-free to pay for those expenses. The amount that you can withdraw is limited to the actual amount of the medical expenses you paid during the calendar year, minus 10% […]

Early Withdrawal of an IRA – First Time Homebuyer

When you have money in an IRA, you are allowed to begin taking withdrawals once you’ve reached age 59½. But sometimes you’d like to take your money out earlier… and you’ve probably already discovered that there is a 10% penalty for taking funds out of your IRA early, right? So – is there a way to avoid that penalty? Perhaps as a first time homebuyer. There are several ways to withdraw IRA funds without penalty, as a matter of fact. There are several sections of the Internal Revenue Code that deal with these early distributions – including 72(t) which includes the first time homebuyer exception. We’ll explain the first time homebuyer exception in this post. First Time Homebuyer If you are buying, building, or re-building your first home (defined later), you are allowed to take a distribution of up to $10,000 (or $20,000 for a married couple) from your IRA to fund a portion of […]

Changing Your SOSEPP – Once, just once

If you’re taking (or planning to take) early distributions from an IRA using the 72(t) provision with a Series of Substantially Equal Periodic Payments, also known as a SOSEPP, you need to know a few things about this arrangement. For more information on SOSEPPs in general, see the article Early Withdrawal of an IRA or 401(k) – SOSEPP for more details. Generally when you establish a SOSEPP you have to stick with your plan for the longer of five years or until you reach age 59½ years of age. However, the IRS allows changing your SOSEPP one time, and only one time. And then, the rules only allow changing your SOSEPP from either the fixed annuitization method or the fixed amortization method to the Required Minimum Distribution method. This is the only exception allowed for changing your SOSEPP during its enforcement period, which is the later of five years after you started the SOSEPP or when […]

SOSEPP – RMD Method

The Required Minimum Distribution method for calculating your Series of Substantially Equal Periodic Payments (under §72(t)(2)(A)(iv)) calculates the specific amount that you must withdraw from your IRA, 401k, or other retirement plan each year, based upon your account balance at the end of the previous year. The balance is then divided by the life expectancy factor from either the Single Life Expectancy table or the Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy table, using the age(s) you have reached (or will reach) by the end of the current calendar year. This annual amount will be different each year, since the balance at the end of the previous year will be different, and your age factor will be different as well. Which table you use is based upon your circumstances. If you are single, or married and your spouse is less than 10 years younger than you, you will use the Single Life Expectancy […]

SOSEPP – Fixed Annuitization method

When calculating your Series of Substantially Equal Periodic Payments (SOSEPP), provided for under §72(t)(2)(A)(iv) of the Internal Revenue Code, one of your choices is the Fixed Annuitization method. Calculating your annual payment under this method requires you to have the balance of your IRA or 401(k) account and an annuity factor, which is found in Appendix B of Rev. Ruling 2002-62 using the age you have reached (or will reach) for that calendar year. You will then specify a rate of interest of your choice that is not more than 120% of the federal mid-term rate published by regularly the IRS in an Internal Revenue Bulletin (IRB). Once you’ve calculated your annual payment under the Fixed Annuitization method, your future payments will be exactly the same until the SOSEPP is no longer in effect. There is a one-time opportunity to change to the Required Minimum Distribution method. For more details on […]

SOSEPP – Fixed Amortization Method

When calculating your Series of Substantially Equal Periodic Payments (SOSEPP), provided for under §72(t)(2)(A)(iv) of the Internal Revenue Code, one of your choices is the Fixed Amortization method. Calculating your annual payment under this method requires you to have the balance of your IRA account. With this balance you then create an amortization schedule over a specified number of years equal to your life expectancy factor from either the Single Life Expectancy table or the Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy table, using the age(s) you have reached (or will reach) for that calendar year. The amortization table must use a rate of interest of your choice, but the chosen rate cannot be more than 120% of the federal mid-term rate published by regularly the IRS in an Internal Revenue Bulletin (IRB). Which table you use is based upon your circumstances. If you are single, or married and your spouse is less than […]

Early Withdrawal of an IRA or 401(k) – SOSEPP

This particular section of the Internal Revenue Code – specifically §72(t)(2)(A)(iv) – is the most famous of the 72(t) provisions. This is mostly due to the fact that it seems to be the ultimate answer to the age-old question “How can I take money out of my IRA or 401(k) without penalty?” While it’s true that this particular code section provides a method for getting at your retirement funds without penalty (and without special circumstances like first-time home purchase or medical issues), this code section is very complicated. With this complication comes a huge potential for costly mistakes – and the IRS does NOT forgive and forget! A Series of Substantially Equal Periodic Payments, or SOSEPP is just what it sounds like. You withdraw a specified amount from your IRA or 401(k) every year. The specified amount is not always the same (hence “substantially” equal) but the method for determining the […]

Separation From Service On or After Age 55

You can listen to this article by using the podcast player below if you’re on the blog; if you’re reading this via RSS, there should be a “Play Now” link just below the title to access the audio. If you’re receiving this article via email, there should be a “Download Now” link within the text of the message to retrieve the audio file. Did you realize that there is a provision within the Internal Revenue Code that allows you to start taking distributions from your 401(k) plan before you reach age 59½?  This little-known section of the code, §72(t)(2)(A)(v), can be a real dandy if you happen to fit the requirements. The primary requirement is that you separate from service with the employer at or after age 55. Note: although we will refer to the 401(k) throughout this article, this code provision applies to all ERISA-qualified, employer-established defined contribution plans, […]

How Does an Early Withdrawal from a Retirement Plan Affect My Taxes?

Oftentimes we are faced with difficult situations in life – where we need extra money to pay for a major car repair, a new roof for the house, or just day-to-day living expenses – and our emergency funds are all tapped out.  Now your options become poor: should I go to a payday loan place, put more on my credit card?  My mortgage is upside-down so there’s no home equity loan in my future, and I can’t ask my folks for a loan, I’ve asked them for too much.  Hey, what about my retirement plan?  I’ve got some money socked away in an IRA that’s just sitting there, why don’t I take that money? It’s really tough to be in a situation like this, but you need to understand the impacts that you’ll face if you decide to go the route of the IRA withdrawal, especially if you’re under age […]

When Rolling Over a 401(k) to an IRA Isn’t a No-Brainer

Oftentimes when folks are considering leaving employment, the decision to rollover 401(k) to an IRA is a no-brainer.  After all, why would you leave your retirement funds at the mercy of the constricted, expensive investment choices and other restrictions of your old company’s 401(k) administrator, when you can be free to invest in any (well, most any) investment you choose, keeping costs down, and completely within your own control in an IRA? Well, for some folks this decision isn’t the straightforward choice that it seems to be, for the very important reason of access to the funds before reaching age 59½ (see this article for more info about The Post-55 Exception to the 10% Penalty for Withdrawals from 401(k)).  Since only within a 401(k) (or other employer-sponsored plans) can you take advantage of this early withdrawal exception, it might be in your best interests to think about your rollover choice […]

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