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social security benefits

How to Reduce or Eliminate Windfall Elimination Provision Impact to Your Social Security Benefit

In prior articles we have discussed the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) which has the effect of reducing a portion of your Social Security retirement benefit if you’ve worked in a job that was not covered by Social Security which also provides a pension.  This article deals with two ways that you can remove the impact of the WEP from your benefit – neither of which is simple, and neither of which can be done after you’ve retired. The two methods are: Add years of “substantial earnings” to your record Take a lump sum distribution from your pension before you are eligible to receive the pension. Adding Substantial Earnings Years If you have the opportunity to work in a job that is covered by Social Security withholding and you have “substantial earnings” from that job, each year that you work in this SS-covered job adds to your ability to begin eliminating […]

Average Indexed Monthly Earnings Years

We’ve discussed the AIME (Average Indexed Monthly Earnings) calculation before, and it’s not like anything has changed about those calculations.  It turns out that the calculation process can be a bit confusing (shocked? I think not). The AIME is calculated using what’s known as the “base years”, which are those years between your age of 22 and 62 that occurred after 1950 (I realize most folks needing to know about this didn’t need that 1950 reference, but it’s part of the rules, so I included it).  Of those 40 years, only the 35 years with the highest earnings are used to calculate the AIME.  The earnings for each year is indexed (see the original article for details) and then the earnings are averaged. One of the questions that comes up is how years after age 62 are handled in this process.  If earnings in subsequent years are greater (after indexing) […]

“Swim With Jim” Radio Interview by Jim Ludwick

I recently had the honor of being interviewed on the radio by Mr. Jim Ludwick, a colleague that I admire and look up to a great deal.  Jim is a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNERTM professional, and his practice is based in Odenton, Maryland with additional offices in Washington, DC, Santa Barbara, California, San Mateo, California, and New York City.  Jim also is a fellow member of the Garrett Planning Network. In the interview we talk very briefly about some of the important factors of Social Security that baby boomers need to address as they plan for Social Security benefits. You can follow Jim’s radio program on BlogTalkRadio; his channel is Swim With Jim.   Listen to internet radio with Swim with Jim on Blog Talk Radio To hear the interview, click the “Play” button above. In the interview I mention that it can be helpful to have an advisor work with you […]

Wealth Defense: When Should You Start Social Security Benefits?

The foregoing is a re-post of an article that I wrote which was included in The Motley Fool’s Rule Your Retirement newsletter.  Enjoy! Want to double a chunk of your retirement income? It’s easy — just delay taking Social Security by about six years! OK, so it’s not really that simple. The time to apply for Social Security benefits is different for each individual; there is no magical “best age” for everyone. Thus, to maximize your benefit, it’s important to understand the consequences of choosing to apply at different ages. It all starts with the most important age: your full retirement age, or FRA (see table below). If you receive your Social Security retirement benefit before your FRA, the benefit will be reduced. The biggest reduction is at age 62, the earliest you can begin receiving benefits (except for widows and widowers, who can begin survivors’ benefits at 60). Year […]

Early Social Security Filing Examples

Most of the examples that you see indicate that filing for Social Security benefits as late as possible is the best way to go.  However, this is not always the case, given that you’re receiving the benefit (albeit at a reduced rate) for a longer period of time.  Let’s work through some examples to show how this works.  This article will only deal with single individuals – we’ve covered spouse benefits in several other articles, it’s time to provide some guidance for single folks. Example 1, Filing at 62 vs 66 John is single, age 62, and his benefit at Full Retirement Age (FRA) has been estimated at $2,000, so his benefit at age 62 would be $1,500, or 75% of the amount at FRA.  If he takes the benefit now, he’ll receive $18,000 per year for the next four years. (COLAs have been eliminated in this example to keep […]

Example Using Spousal Benefits and Delayed Retirement Credits for Social Security

(Photo credit: jodigreen) Note: with the passage of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 into law, File & Suspend and Restricted Application have been effectively eliminated for anyone born in 1954 or later. If born before 1954 there are some options still available, but these are limited as well. Please see the article The Death of File & Suspend and Restricted Application for more details. This particular situation was presented to me by a reader.  Since the facts represent a fairly common situation that we haven’t addressed here in the past, I thought I’d present it here for discussion. Here’s the original question (altered a bit for clarity): My wife and I are age 65 & 67 respectively.  We’re both still working part-time, and my wife has now 20 years of earnings on her Social Security record.  At this point her PIA is approximately 45% of my PIA, and increasing […]

Working While Receiving Social Security

[Hank Gowdy, Dick Rudolph, Lefty Tyler, Joey Connolly, Oscar Dugey (baseball)] (LOC) (Photo credit: The Library of Congress) For many folks, starting to receive Social Security as early as possible is important – even if they’re still actively working and earning a living. Something happens when you do this though: depending on how much you’re earning, you will be giving up a portion of the Social Security benefit that you would otherwise receive.  Up to the year that you will reach Full Retirement Age, for every two dollars that you earn over the annual limit ($14,640 for 2012, or $1,220 per month), your Social Security benefit will be reduced by one dollar. Then in the year you will reach Full Retirement Age (FRA) there is a different income limit – actually $3,240 per month.  For every three dollars over that limit, your Social Security benefit will be reduced by one […]

The Social Security Survivor Benefit – Part 2

Note: you can find the first part of this discussion of Social Security Survivor Benefits at the link. Part 1 covered the basics of Survivor Benefits, and this article covers other considerations with the Survivor Benefit, including non-spouse survivor’s benefits and coordinating the Survivor Benefit with your own benefit. As mentioned in the prior articles, don’t expect to fully understand these calculations and definitions in the first run-through. Check over the other articles (Part 1 here, Spouse Benefits here and especially the further explanation of Spouse Benefits here) for more information, and post questions in the comment section if they come up.

Social Security Income Replacement Rates

Image by woody1778a via Flickr You might not know this, but it’s a fact that Social Security retirement benefits are not designed to provide retirement income in the same ratio to all levels of wage earners.  The system, being a social insurance system, benefits folks who have had lower income levels through their lives at a higher rate than folks who have had higher incomes. So, what are the replacement rates that are experienced?  Of course it is different for each individual, but some averages are listed in the table below:   Average Lifetime Earnings FRA Social Security Benefit Replacement Rate $16,700 $9,400 54% $37,200 $15,570 40% $58,900 $20,610 34% $87,800 $24,000 28%   This is just a representative sample of various levels of lifetime average income.  It shows how, at lower income levels, Social Security replaces a much higher ratio of the pre-retirement income.  This means that at higher […]

2012 Social Security Earnings Limits

For the Earnings Test, there is a limit to the amount of income that can be earned if you’re under Full Retirement Age (FRA).  The limits for 2012 were recently released: For years in which the recipient of Social Security retirement benefits is younger than FRA, Social Security benefits will be reduced by $1 for every $2 greater than $14,640, or $1,220 per month. For the year in which the recipient reaches FRA (but prior to reaching FRA), Social Security retirement benefits will be reduced by $1 for every $3 over the limit of $38,880 or $3,240 per month. After reaching FRA, there is no limit on earnings.

The Mystery of Social Security

Social Security has become a significant part of many retirees’ sustenance, ever since it was first introduced back in the 1930’s. As the traditional pension plan goes the way of the buggy-whip and common investor behavior leads to poor results in savings plans (if there are any savings at all!), the Social Security benefit becomes more and more important. Unfortunately, the way Social Security works is a mystery for most folks. There’s really not much in the way of guidance for using the system, and relying solely on the phone representatives from the Social Security Administration is bound to lead you to a less-than-optimal result. As with most financial activities, it pays to learn as much as you can about your options, possible strategies, and the pluses and minuses of various choices that you make. A Social Security Owner’s Manual is an attempt at providing you with the groundwork to […]

The Do It Yourself Do Over For Social Security

Image by iNNoVaNDiS via Flickr Late last year the Social Security Administration made a change to the rules that took a powerful option off the books – the payback and Do-Over. Back in the olden days (prior to December, 2010), there was an option available that allowed a person to file for Social Security retirement benefits at any age, and then later pay back all of the benefits received and re-file at a later age, effectively cleaning the slate and starting over at your later age. When the rule was changed, the payback and re-file now has to be done within 12 months.  But all is not lost – there is still a way to reset things if you find yourself having filed earlier than you really needed to and you wound up working longer than you thought. The Do It Yourself Do Over If you’re still under Full Retirement […]

What Can Be Done to Save Social Security?

Image by Lady_Helena via Flickr This is, of course, one of the most volatile questions on the political landscape these days.  We have some constituencies claiming that the whole plan is a Ponzi scheme and we should get rid of it altogether – and many others aiming to make radical tax increases in the system to improve solvency, or pushing back the age(s) for receiving benefits to reduce drag on the system. True, the system is in dire straits – not bankrupt, but needing attention.  Current projections indicate that at current pace, funds allocated to the system will run out sometime around 2036 unless something changes. Increasing taxes is never popular, and current political winds have shown just how far the dream of no increases in taxes will be pushed.  In addition, extending the age limits during a time when unemployment is at record highs only exacerbates that issue – […]

How PIA Relates to Your Benefit

Image by petit1ze via Flickr If you’ve been looking into your Social Security projected benefits for long, you’ve probably run across the term Primary Insurance Amount, or PIA.  Click on the link to see how the PIA is calculated if you need more background information on the PIA. What’s important to know is that the PIA is essentially the amount of your retirement benefit if you file for it exactly on your Full Retirement Age (FRA) month.  But hardly anyone files for retirement benefits in exactly the month that you reach FRA.  If you file for your retirement benefit before or after FRA, even by a month, there is a difference between your PIA what your benefit will be. Before FRA If you file for benefits before the month when you reach FRA, there are two factors that apply to your benefit, reducing it from the PIA amount.  The reason […]

Should I Use IRA Funds or Social Security at Age 62?

Image via Wikipedia Folks who have retired or are preparing to retire before the Social Security Full Retirement Age (FRA) face a dilemma if they have IRA assets available.  Specifically, is it better to take an income from the IRA account during the years prior to FRA (or age 70) in order to receive a larger Social Security benefit; or should they preserve IRA assets by taking the reduced Social Security benefits at age 62? At face value, given the nature of IRA assets, it seems like the best method would be to preserve the IRA’s tax-deferral on those assets, even though it means that your Social Security benefit will be reduced. If you look at the taxation of Social Security benefits though, you might discover that delaying receipt of your Social Security will provide a much more tax effective income later in life.  In the tables below I’ll work […]

Spousal Benefits are for One Spouse at a Time

Note: with the passage of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 into law, File & Suspend and Restricted Application have been effectively eliminated for anyone born in 1954 or later. If born before 1954 there are some options still available, but these are limited as well. Please see the article The Death of File & Suspend and Restricted Application for more details. This post intends to clarify a question that comes up repeatedly:  both spouses cannot collect Spousal Benefits at the same time. If you stop and think about the mechanics of Spousal Benefits, it should become clear to you that this isn’t possible.  Below is a recap of the rules that are necessary for Spousal Benefits to work. Image via Wikipedia Rules for Spousal Benefits 1. In order for a spouse to file for Spousal Benefits, the other spouse in the couple must have filed for benefits as well.  […]

Deemed Filing

Many times the question comes up – Since my spouse has filed for Social Security retirement benefits, can I file for only the Spousal Benefit? Image by T a k via Flickr This is certainly available for the individual that is at or over Full Retirement Age (FRA).  This is a common circumstance that many folks employ.  One spouse files for benefits and the other, hoping to achieve the full Delayed Retirement Credits (DRCs), while still receiving a benefit, files for the Spousal Benefit only.  This is a perfectly allowable method.  See this article for more information on filing for the Spousal Benefit only. On the other hand, if you’re under FRA, this option is not available to you.  This is because, prior to FRA, if you file for the Spousal Benefit, you are deemed to have filed for your own benefit as well.  This is known as “deemed filing”, […]

Proposed Changes to the Inflation Index

Image by darkmatter via Flickr One of the many proposed changes that is being considered to help resolve the current budgetary issues is to change the index used to adjust Social Security benefits from the current method, using the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, or CPI-W, to a much more conservative index known as the Chained Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers (or C-CPI-U).  (See this article on How Social Security COLAs are Calculated for more information.) Unfortunately, the reason behind making this is change is the fact that it will ultimately save money for the Social Security system, directly at the expense of the beneficiaries of that system.  Here’s what you can expect: As an example, the CPI-W indicates a year-over-year increase from June 2010 to June 2011 of 4.1%.  Over the same period, the C-CPI-U only shows an increase of 3.4%. This […]

How Survivor Benefits are Treated

Image by mayakamina via Flickr Social Security Survivor Benefits are much different from Spousal Benefits in several ways.  In fact, there’s very little to compare between the two.  Here are the primary things that you need to know about Survivor Benefits: Survivor Benefits can be claimed as early as age 60.  Of course, as with all early claims for benefits, the amount will be reduced if you claim earlier than Full Retirement Age (FRA). At age 60 your Survivor Benefit would be reduced to 71.5% of your late spouse’s benefit amount (or PIA if he or she wasn’t at FRA). Survivor Benefits are based upon 100% of the amount of benefit (at your FRA) that the deceased spouse was or should be receiving, whereas Spousal Benefits are based upon the PIA, and then only at a 50% maximum rate. Survivor Benefits can also be applied for separately from your own […]

The Affect of Earnings on Your Social Security Benefit

Image by owaief89 via Flickr What happens if you are earning a significant amount of money (more than the limits) and you decide to go ahead and begin receiving your benefit at Full Retirement Age (FRA)? Since you’re already at FRA, you have no limit on your earnings, either as an employee or as a self-employed individual.  Your earnings have no negative impact on your Social Security retirement benefit, although if your earnings are significant and more than some of your earlier earnings years, your future benefits could possibly increase. In addition, any benefits that your dependents or spouse may be receiving that are based upon your record are also not impacted by your earnings. The one impact that your additional earnings will have on your Social Security benefit is that taxation will be increased according to the amount of income you receive.  This can amount to as much as […]

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