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Five-Step Reallocation

Since there’s been an appreciable run-up in stocks over the recent past, now may be a good time to reallocate your investment allocations in your retirement plans and other accounts. You’ve probably heard of reallocation before – but what does it really mean?

Reallocating is the process of changing your current mix of investments to a different mix. It could be that you’ve changed your risk assessment and wish to have more stock and fewer bonds, vice versa, or your investments have grown in some categories from your original allocation and you need to get the mix back to where you started.

At any rate, reallocation is a relatively simple operation, and research tells us that it is important to reallocate regularly, such as on an annual basis. Below are five steps that you can use for a simple reallocation in your accounts.

Reallocation in Five Steps

1) Reallocating, sometimes referred to as “rebalancing”, requires taking a look at your overall investment portfolio. You need to bring together all of your different investment and savings account statements and review the allocation, comparing to your goal allocation. You might put this information on a spreadsheet on your computer, or just on a sheet of notebook paper.

For some people, this could take quite a while – if you have several bank accounts, retirement plans, maybe a brokerage account or two, and then some savings bonds, for example, it can take quite a while to pull all of this together. This may be one reason why folks don’t bother with reallocation. Believe me, it’s worth every minute of effort! Without reallocation, some components of your investment assets can become too large of a part of your investments, changing the risk structure of the portfolio.

So anyway, go ahead and pull all of the account information together.

2) Once you’ve done this, break down your overall retirement portfolio into three categories – cash, bonds, and stocks. For our purposes, you should consider bond mutual funds, individual bonds, and preferred stocks in the “bonds” category. Likewise, consider individual stocks and stock mutual funds in the “stocks” category. Real estate or other non-stock and non-bond investments should be considered as a fourth category, if you have any those.

100% berry allocation

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3) Now that you have the categories split up, add up each category of items separately, and divide that amount by the overall total. This will give you your current ratio.

4) The next step is a little more difficult. It requires you to think about what kind of “split” you’d like for your investments. For each individual, this split will be a little different. There are rules of thumb that you could use, but in the end, this split is a personal decision for you to make. Generally speaking the more that you have allocated to stocks, the more risky your portfolio is. So, a 60% stock/40% bond portfolio is more risky than a 50% stock/50% bond portfolio, generally speaking.

Some of the factors that you need to consider are your age, the number of years until retirement, your health, and the same factors for your spouse. In addition, consider your children’s education expenses, as these often cut in to the amounts available for your retirement.

Bear in mind that this split ratio will be a number that will change as time passes. For example, a person at age 25 may have a ratio of 90% stocks, 5% real estate, and 5% bonds. When this person reaches age 40, they might wish to have a lower-risk exposure, so they have changed their ratio to 70% stocks, 20% real estate, and 10% bonds. As this example individual nears retirement age, say around age 55, the ratio might adjust to 50% stocks, 20% real estate, and 30% bonds. (Note: these ratios are only for example and are not a recommendation. As stated earlier, each individual should determine the appropriate ratio for his or her own personal situation.)

A cash allocation is for those funds that you have a short-term need for. You might have college expenses to be paid from this fund, or perhaps you’re in retirement and need to money for living expenses. This money that is earmarked for use within say, five years, should not be exposed to the stock and bond market risk like your other long-term funds.

5) Once you’ve determined the ratio that works best for you, compare it to the real ratio that we calculated in step 3 above. All you have left to finish your re-allocation is to adjust your current holdings to match the ideal ratio that you’ve come up with for yourself.

Most retirement plan websites have a facility or toolset that allows you to do this re-allocation quite simply. If that’s not the case for your plan, simply determine which of your holdings that you need to buy and/or sell in order to make your allocation match the ratio that you’ve decided upon for yourself.

Note: If you have a mix of tax-deferred accounts and taxable (non-IRA accounts), you’ll want to be careful if you’re selling any positions in the taxable accounts as this can generate capital gains taxation depending upon your circumstances. This can be a nasty surprise come tax time if you’re not careful about it. Try to offset capital gains with capital losses in other holdings or accounts, or perform any sales of appreciated holdings within your tax-deferred accounts alone.

And you’re done! That was actually pretty painless, wasn’t it? This process will be much easier next time around (it should be done once a year, by the way) since you’ve already gone through it once. You’re on your way to financial independence, believe it or not!

If you’re finding this a little more complicated than you feel you can work out on your own, hire a financial advisor to assist you with the task. A fee-only financial advisor will assist you with this kind of task without trying to sell you investments. If you need some assistance in reallocating your investment account, especially if it’s your employer-sponsored retirement account, a fee-only advisor is your best bet.

7 Questions About Divorcee Social Security Benefits

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Santiago on unsplash.com

Photo courtesy of Gabriel Santiago on unsplash.com

Included in the myriad of questions that I regularly receive from readers are questions about how a divorced person can collect benefits based upon his or her ex-spouse’s Social Security record.

For a divorcee (as with many married couples) sometimes the ex’s benefits represent the lion’s share of the couple’s SS record. Because of this, many divorcees are very interested in knowing what benefits are available to them, and when.

In addition, even when the divorced spouse in question is not the higher earner there are questions about benefits that can be quite difficult to find answers for.

Keep reading…

IRS provides advice for avoiding phone scams

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Photo courtesy of Thomas Lefebvre on unsplash.com

There has been a rash of phone scams going on this year – scammers posing as IRS agents that is. I haven’t personally received any of the calls, but I’ve had calls from several clients who have gotten these calls.

They can be very disconcerting, to say the least. In the typical phone scam, the caller contacts you out of the blue, and seems to have information about your home address, or bank, or other somewhat personal information. They then tell you that you owe a pile of taxes and you have to pay up now or the local police will be on the way to see you. They will readily take your credit or debit card information right now, over the phone.

The flip side is that they’ll say you have a refund coming and will ask for your bank account information so that they can transfer it to you, right away!

Keep reading…

16 Ways to Withdraw Money From Your 401k Without Penalty

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Photo courtesy of Lucas Theis on unsplash.com

When you have a 401k plan and hard times befall you, you may wonder if there is a way to get your hands on the money. In some cases you can get to the funds for a hardship withdrawal, but if you’re under age 59½ you will likely owe the 10% early withdrawal penalty. (The term 401k is used throughout this article, but these options apply to all qualified plans, including 403b, 457, etc.)

Generally it’s difficult to withdraw money from your 401k, that’s part of the value of a 401k plan – a sort of forced discipline that requires you to leave your savings alone until retirement or face some significant penalties. Many 401k plans have options available to get your hands on the money, but most have substantial qualifications that are tough to meet.

The list below is not all-inclusive, and each 401k plan administrator may have different restrictions or may not allow the option at all.

Keep reading…

8 Questions: Social Security Survivor Benefits

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Photo courtesy of Patrik Goethe on unsplash.com

In this previous article we addressed some of the most common questions about Social Security Spousal Benefits. Keeping with the theme of developing FAQ sheets, today I’ll go through some of the most common questions about Social Security Survivor Benefits.

Survivor Benefits are available when a Social Security recipient passes away and leaves surviving dependents – spouse, children, and other dependent family members.

Keep reading…

10 questions: Social Security Spousal Benefits

Photo courtesy of Dan Ruswick on unsplash.com

Photo courtesy of Dan Ruswick on unsplash.com

I recently had the pleasure of taking part in a live interactive event with Yahoo! Finance, where folks were able to ask virtually any question they wished. We received and responded to over 200 questions – they’re all on Facebook on the Yahoo! Finance page (click the link to go to the page). One recurring theme played out over and over: Social Security Spousal Benefits are not understood by a vast number of folks.

Naturally I find this to be disturbing.  Social Security Spousal Benefits often represent a large part of the total benefits available to a couple.  This benefit is even more important for many divorced spouses, as it might represent the only benefits available to many divorcees. Understanding this benefit is very important, as SSA staff often isn’t fully-conversant in the options that you have available.

Keep reading…

Social Security Wage Base Projected for 2015

According to the Social Security Administration trustees, the Social Security wage base for 2015 is projected to be $119,100.  This represents an increase of $2,100 from the 2014 wage base of $117,000.

This is an increase of 1.79% – and won’t be finalized until October when the other increases for Social Security amounts are announced. This is a relatively small increase when compared to recent annual increases we’ve seen.  The previous 3 years’ increases have averaged 3.09%.

This is different from the COLA (Cost of Living Adjustment), which has increased an average of 2.27% in the past three years. The 2014 COLA (applicable to 2015 benefits and other figures) will be released later in the year, typically in October.

RMD Avoidance Scheme: Birthdate Makes All The Difference

Photo courtesy of Lizzy Gadd on unsplash.com

Photo courtesy of Lizzy Gadd on unsplash.com

As you may recall from this previous article, it is possible to use a rollover into an active 401(k) plan as an RMD avoidance scheme. Of course, this will only work as long as you’re employed by the employer sponsoring the 401(k) plan and you’re not a 5% or greater owner of the company. In addition, the rollover must be done in a timely fashion, prior to the year that you will reach age 70 1/2 in order to avoid RMD.

An example of where timing worked against a taxpayer (at least temporarily) recently came to me via the ol’ mailbag: Keep reading…

File For Part B Medicare – COBRA Isn’t Enough

Photo courtesy of Lukasz Szmigiel on unsplash.com

Photo courtesy of Lukasz Szmigiel on unsplash.com

For most folks, when you reach age 65 and have ceased regular work, filing for Medicare Parts A & B is an automatic thing. If you don’t file during the 3 months before or after your 65th birthday, you may have penalties to pay. This applies even if you have recently been laid off of work and are covered for health insurance under a COBRA plan. Part A carries no cost if you’re fully covered (40 quarters of coverage), but Part B requires a monthly premium.

When laid off from an employer who has provided health insurance coverage to you while employed, you have the option of continuing the health coverage for a period of time, up to two years. This continuation of coverage is called COBRA, named for the law that put it into place (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act). You have to file in a timely manner for Medicare – COBRA coverage doesn’t remove that requirement.Keep reading…

Windfall Elimination Provision May Impact Spousal Benefits but not Survivor Benefits

danny and sandyWhen your Social Security retirement benefit is subject to the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP), you’re likely painfully aware of the reduction to your own benefit by this provision. What you may not be aware of is that the effect goes beyond your own benefit – your spouse’s and other dependents’ benefits are also impacted by this provision. However, the impact of WEP does not continue after your death. Keep reading…

Don’t Let the Premium Tax Credit Hang You Out to Dry

Photo courtesy of Charles L. on unsplash.com

Photo courtesy of Charles L. on unsplash.com

When you are using the Health Insurance Marketplace for your family’s health insurance, you may be receiving assistance with the premiums in the form of a premium tax credit.  This credit is paid to the health insurance provider, allowing your monthly premium to be lower.

These premium credits are based upon your residence, income, family size, and eligibility for health insurance via other avenues, such as through a new employer.  If something has changed in your life, you may be receiving too much or too little in premium tax credits.  The IRS recently issued a Health Care Tax Tip designed to help you understand if you need to make a change to the premium credit you’re receiving to avoid unpleasant surprises at tax time. Keep reading…

3 Do Over Options For Social Security Benefits

do overs as easy as jumping in the lake

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You’re allowed to file for your Social Security retirement benefits when you reach age 62 (in general). Most advisors recommend that you delay filing until some later date to better maximize your lifetime benefits. But what do those advisors know anyhow?

At least that is what you were thinking when you first filed. After all, you’ve paid into the system for your entire working life, you deserve to get the money back out, right? Plus, who knows when Social Security will go bankrupt, right? Gotta get the money while you can!

Then a couple of years pass and you realize that you short-changed yourself (and your spouse) by taking early benefits. Turns out that you didn’t need that money at 62 – you could have delayed. And you’ve come to realize that Social Security is not likely to go away, at least not in your lifetime. (Maybe those advisors were right after all?) Keep reading…

Retrieving a Prior-Year Tax Return Copy

my tax return copy is lost somewhere in this city

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Sometimes you need access to a previous year tax return copy, and dadgummit you just pitched the box of tax copies from 2011, thinking you couldn’t possibly need it again!  There are ways to get this information – some easier than others.

First of all, if you prepared and filed your own return using one of the commercial programs, and you’ve maintained your access to the program over the years, you should be able to go back and re-print a copy of the return from that year.  This is the quick and simple method.

If you had a tax professional prepare and file the return for you, she should have a copy of your return – if not the fileable copy, then at least a client’s or preparer’s copy, which should be adequate for fulfilling most requirements.  Many preparers retain these copies, with supporting documentation, for many years for just this sort of purpose.  Our office maintains copies of all returns we’ve filed, for example.  Keep reading…

Using First Year RMD Delay to Your Advantage

Photo courtesy of Alicja Colon on unsplash.com.

Photo courtesy of Alicja Colon on unsplash.com.

When you are first subject to RMD (Required Minimum Distributions), which for most folks* is the year that you reach age 70½, you are allowed until April 1 of the following year to receive that first minimum distribution.  For all other years you must take your RMD by December 31 of that year.  For many folks, it makes the most sense to take that first year RMD during the first tax year (by December 31 of the year that you’re age 70½), because otherwise you’ll have two RMDs hitting your tax return in that year.  However, in some cases, it might work to your advantage to delay that first distribution until at least the beginning of the following year – as long as you make it by April 1, you’re golden.

There may be many circumstances that could make this delay work to your advantage – maybe you’re still working in the year you reach age 70½ and your income is much higher than it will be the following year, for example. Keep reading…

How to Deal With Missed Required Minimum Distributions

fixing missed required minimum distributions can be like staring into the sun

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What happens when a beneficiary doesn’t act in a timely fashion with regard to taking Required Minimum Distributions from the inherited IRA?  In other words, what are your options if you’ve missed Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs) in prior years?

The Inheritance

So, let’s say you inherited an IRA from your mother – this was her own IRA that she had contributed to or rolled over funds from a qualified plan at some point, and had designated you as the sole primary beneficiary.  Things get really hectic and confusing after the death of a parent, and sometimes we don’t cover all of the bases properly… and in this example, you didn’t realize that you needed to begin taking Required Minimum Distributions (RMD) from your inherited IRA as of December 31 of the year following the year of your mother’s death.  As of now, for example’s sake, let’s say we’re in the fourth year after your mother’s passing. (see Notes below) Keep reading…

Annuity in an IRA? Maybe, now

Annuities can produce mountains of fees

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Forever and a day, the rule of thumb has been that you should not use IRA funds to purchase an annuity – primarily because traditional annuities had the primary feature of tax deferral. Since an IRA is already tax-deferred, it’s duplication of effort plus a not insignificant additional cost to include an annuity in an IRA.  This hasn’t stopped enthusiastic sales approaches by annuity companies – plus new features may make it a more realistic approach.

Changes in the annuity landscape have made some inroads against this rule of thumb – including guaranteed living benefit riders, death benefits, and other options.  Recently the IRS made a change to its rules regarding IRAs and annuities that will likely make the use of annuities even more popular in IRAs: The use of the lesser of 25% or $125,000 of the IRA balance (also applies to 401(k) and other qualified retirement plans) for the purchase of “longevity insurance”, which is another term for a deferred annuity. Keep reading…

Resurrecting the Qualified Charitable Distribution?

You could use your computer to make a qualified charitable distribution

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This past week the US House of Representatives passed a bill (HR 4719, known as the America Gives More Act) which would re-instate the Qualified Charitable Distribution from IRAs and make the provision permanent.  This provision expired at the end of 2013, as it has multiple times in the past, only to be re-instated temporarily time and again.

A Qualified Charitable Distribution (QCD) is when a person who is at least age 70½ years of age and subject to Required Minimum Distributions from an IRA is allowed to make a distribution from the IRA and direct the distribution to a qualified charitable organization without having to recognize the income for taxable purposes.  This has been a popular option for many taxpayers, especially since the QCD can also be recognized as the Required Minimum Distribution for the year from the IRA. Keep reading…

How to Compute Your Monthly Social Security Benefit

steps to compute your monthly social security benefit

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So you’ve seen your statement from Social Security, showing what your benefit might be at various stages in your life.  But not everyone files for benefits at exactly age 62 or 66 – quite often there are months or years that pass before you actually file.  This article will show you how to compute your monthly Social Security benefit, no matter when you file.

Computing your monthly Social Security benefit

First of all, in order to compute your monthly Social Security benefit, you need to know two things: your Primary Insurance Amount (PIA) and your Full Retirement Age (FRA).  The PIA is rather complicated to define, but for a shorthand version of this figure, you might use the figure that is on your statement from Social Security as payable to you on your Full Retirement Age (or “normal” retirement age).  Keep reading…

The Dog Ate My Tax Receipts Bill

dog ate my tax receiptsNow here’s some legislation that I could get behind!

Recently, House Representative Steve Stockman (R-TX) introduced a bill in response to the IRS’ lame excuse of a “computer glitch” that purportedly erased all of the incriminating evidence from the agency’s computers.  This was part of the testimony offered by former IRS Exempt Organizations Division director Lois Lerner in response to the accusation that her division targeted organizations critical of the current administration.

Stockman’s bill provides that if the IRS can use lame, flimsy excuses to avoid prosecution, taxpayers should be allowed to use similar excuses.  The actual text of the bill follows below: Keep reading…

QDRO vs Transfer Incident to a Divorce

sometimes people discuss transfer incident to a divorce in tall buildings in big cities

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Divorcing couples often face the need to split up some retirement account assets.  This can be done from a retirement plan such as a 401(k) or 403(b), or from an IRA.  Depending on which type of account you’re splitting, the rules are very similar but are referred to by different names.  For a qualified retirement plan (401(k) or 403(b) plan), the operative term is Qualified Domestic Relations Order or QDRO (cue-DRO).  For an IRA, the action is known as a transfer incident to a divorce.

We discussed the QDRO in several other articles, so we’ll focus on the transfer incident to a divorce in this article.

Keep reading…