When you have a 401k and you need some money from the account, you have a couple of options. Depending upon your 401k plan’s options, you may be able to take a 401k loan. With some plans you also have the option to take an early, in-service withdrawal from the plan.
These two options have very different outcomes for you, in terms of taxes and possible penalties. Let’s explore the differences.
If your plan allows for a 401k loan, this can be a good option to get access to the money, for virtually any purpose. Being a loan, there is no tax impact when you take out a 401k loan. Plus you can use the money for any purpose that you need, at any age.
As a loan, it must be paid back over the a five-year period (at most). You’ll pay interest on the loan, but since it is from your own account, you’re paying interest to yourself.
There is a limit of $50,000 for a 401k loan, or 50% of your account balance if that amount is less.
If you leave the employer (retirement or otherwise) and there is still a balance outstanding on your 401k loan, the outstanding balance will be considered a withdrawal from the 401k account – which is taxable as ordinary income and possibly subject to the 10% early withdrawal penalty (unless you meet one of the exceptions, see below).
If you are not currently employed by the sponsoring employer, a 401k loan is generally not available.
If you’re still employed by the company and want to take a withdrawal from your 401k, the 401k plan must have an option to allow for in-service withdrawals. Often there are restrictions on the availability of an in-service withdrawal. For many plans it’s necessary to be above a certain age (such as 59½ years of age), or that a particular requirement is met, such as hardship by the employee, defined by the plan administrator.
In addition, if you’re taking a withdrawal from the plan instead of a 401k loan, the money withdrawn from the 401k plan will be taxable to you as ordinary income. Plus if you’re under age 59½ your withdrawal could be subject to an early withdrawal penalty unless you meet one of the exceptions. See the article 16 Ways to Withdraw Money From Your 401k Without Penalty to see the exceptions to the 10% penalty.
The good news is that you won’t have to pay the money back to the plan when you make a withdrawal as you would with a 401k loan.